S. Cadoc, who also laboured in the Brito-Pictish borderland, was a Briton; and he falls into direct succession to S. Ninian, S. Caranoc the Great, Paul Hén, the historic S. Servanus, and S. Drostan. Only a few historical facts about S. Cadoc are recoverable. The versions substituted for the Old Life by the mediaeval Latin fabulists are shameless perversions* of the original. S. Cadoc’s headquarters in his later days were at Llancarvan in Glamorgan. This place was not far from the market-town called ‘ Beneventum’ which had been named originally by the Imperial Roman garrison. This town has been identified with Venta of the Silures (Caer Went), S. Tathan’s, In the Old Life it was said that S. Cadoc was in the habit of visiting Beneventum. The fabulists turned this into Benevento in Italy. They next invented a story of miraculous flights on a cloud from Llancarvan to Italy. This gave opportunity for a visit to the Pope and favours from the See of Peter which the historical S. Cadoc neither sought nor received. Other hands represented him as bishop of the Italian Benevento, and confused him with a Continental bishop who bore a slightly similar name.
S. Cadoc was active in maintaining S. Ninian’s work among the Strathclyde Britons in the first half of the sixth century. The authorities who give the approximate time of his death as c. A.D. 570 are correct. This is confirmed by the fact that S. Cadoc was a great-grandson of that Brychan of South Wales, who was grandfather to S. Drostan of Buchan and Caithness. Ferrarius was misled by the fabulists into putting his death a century earlier. The object of this ante-dating was to give an earlier date to the Roman mission in Britain S. Cadoc was baptized by S. Tathan of Bangor, Caer Went (Beneventum), where he received the first part of his education. S. Cadoc’s muinntir contained twentyfour disciples. For seven years he lived with his disciples near the mount called ‘Bannauc’ in what afterwards became Scotland. ‘Bannauc’ is an attempt to give the genitive case of Manach representing the earlier Britonnic Mynach. Brychan died c. 450. The place indicated is now Carmunnock on the Cathkin hills near Glasgow. The elements of this name are Caer and Mynach ; and the complete name means Monk’s ‘City.’
S, Cadoc’s Life informs us that his settlements were fortified Gz^yj. A Church-site representing a foundation of S. Cadoc was at Cambuslang, also near Glasgow. After he had completed seven years of missionwork in Alba, S. Cadoc organized a new muinntir with which he settled at ‘ Nantcarvan’ now Llancarvan.This form of the name may be due to a Church of ‘Gnavan,’ pronounced Gravan. He is one of the recorded disciples of S. Cadoc. This place is in Glamorgan ; and not far away was a market-town used in the days of the Roman occupation by the Imperial garrison, and called by the soldiers ‘Beneventum,’ Goodmarket. Beneventum is identified as Caer Went in Monmouthshire. In this market-town also, S. Cadoc had some spiritual responsibility which has not been particularized; but it is known that there he was taught, baptized, and partly trained at ‘C6r Tathan,’ that is, ‘Bangor Tathan.’ Probably it was indicated in the Old Life that at S. Tathan’s death S. Cadoc assumed responsibility for his work; because the fabulists call him ‘ bishop of (at) Beneventum.’ At Llancaran S. Cadoc successfully established a great Christian training centre. From particulars that have come down, it was organized like Candida Casa. There was a Church, education was arranged for the people and for those intending the ministry, and provision was organized for the poor. Llancarvan was one of the Bangors of the Britons, and was known, for a time, as ‘Bangor Catog.’ S. Cadoc was martyred by Saxons at Beneventum, South Wales, c. a.d. 570, and his work was continued by his disciple S. ‘ EUi,’ who succeeded him as Ab.
S. Machan was one of S. Cadoc’s workers in Alba. Judging from the number of his own foundations he was evidently one of those left to carry on the work when S. Cadoc departed for South Wales. S. Machan is not only a link with S. Cadoc but a link with the historical Servanus. One of his foundations was at Dalserf on the Clyde, a parish which has resumed the name which indicates its first missionary, S. Serf or Servanus, although it had been known for many years as Machan-shire. Another foundation is Eccles-Machan in Linlithgowshire, near to Abercorn where there used to be a Church-foundation and Fair of S. Servanus. This and many other examples show how the supply of ministers among the Britons was not allowed to fail. The muinntir of an Ab existed not only for its own president and for itself; but for supply of a ministry to Churches founded before its time. S. Machan is another saint who carried his work into Lennox in supportof the Churches already founded there.
The Church of Campsie is one of his Lennox foundations ; and there is an age-long tradition that he was buried there, The writer of Origines Parochiales was misinformed about a ‘dedication’ to S. Machan in ‘Clyne.’ Clyne was probably read for Clyde. In the Roman Catholic period an altar was dedicated to S. Machan in Glasgow Cathedral. S. Machan’s day is the 28th of September.* He died in the sixth century; but the year of his death is now unknown. Adam King, following the practice of the Gaidhealic or Scotic editors, seeks to date him by a Scotic king whom he calls ‘Donalde’; but Domhnall, prince of Dalriada,who was S. Machan’s contemporary, never ascended any throne, not even in Dalriada; and S. Machan did not labour in Dalriada but among the Strathclyde Britons and among the Picts. This practice of dating British and Pictish men and events of note by the reigns of Dalriad kings or their sons, who were only local chiefs, was a device of the Gaidhealic or Scotic editors and annalists to create a belief among the ignorant of the Middle Ages that the Gaidhealic or Scotic ascendency in Alba began centuries before the accession of Kenneth Mac Alpin, A.D. 842, to the Pictish throne.